Energy Efficiency
Solutions and Technologies

Technology Wheel

TREES integrates multiple technologies to achieve the greatest amount of energy savings and lowest Carbon Footprint by saving the most Greenhouse Gases

High Efficiency
Motors

Also known as Premium Efficiency Motors, these motors are designed to increase the energy efficiency of motors by 20-30%. They can take the efficiency rating from around 80% to above 95%. This improvement saves substantial electricity costs, enabling clients to achieve simple paybacks of below three to five years, depending on the operational profile, size and cost of the motor.

According to the US Department of Energy, motors are responsible for around 40% of the electricity used to drive pumps, fans, compressors, and other mechanical traction equipment.

HEM’s are suitable for retrofitting/upgrading of existing motors in commercial and industrial facilities such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels, universities, retail, leisure facilities as well as industrial sites such as food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, grain processing and cold storage facilities.

The motors are used for chilled Water and Hot Water compressors, air distribution, water distribution, heat rejection, refrigeration, and in all industrial processing plants.

Boiler
Replacements

Boilers are mainstream providers of hot water and steam, at various temperatures, flow and steam rates in both commercial and industrial facilities. In hospitals and hotels they can be providing Domestic Hot Water for space heating and personal use (bathrooms, kitchens), steam for sterilizers, hot water for therapeutic and leisure swimming pools, hot water and steam for commercial laundries etc. In industrial facilities, they have a wide application for various industrial processes, producing both hot water and steam.

There are many opportunities to increase the energy efficiency of boiler systems, including the replacement of old boilers with new, high efficiency boilers, the optimization of existing boilers by capturing additional waste heat and re-injecting it into the existing boilers, and improving the efficiency of the daily operation of the existing boilers by optimization using commercial building management systems (BMS) or industrial process control systems.

Solar PV
Systems and
Batteries

Solar PV systems can be a combination of roof mounted, ground mounted and potentially wall mounted. The system includes all the relevant components to generate electricity from the sun captured by the polycrystalline solar panels as Direct Current (DC) electricity and then converted to Alternating Current (AC) via inverters, to provide electricity directly to the end user or electricity network.

The cost of Solar PV systems has decreased dramatically over the last few years, so now Commercial solar PV systems for business are more affordable, with much shorter payback periods. This means the capacity of the installation can now increase, with projects in the 500 kW to 1MW range becoming more commonplace.

The Solar PV systems are also now being enhanced with new generation Lithium based battery storage systems, enabling Solar PV to be a more mainstream source of energy for both commercial and industrial facilities.

Chiller
Replacements

Comfortable indoor temperatures are essential to an efficient working environment, making HVAC integral to any plant, office or building. HVAC often makes up a large part of a business’s day-to-day costs.

An HVAC system may be centralized or decentralized.

A centralized system involves a central chiller plant that’s either water-cooled or air-cooled. A decentralized system makes use of split inverter, standalone tower or wall/window-mounted units. Either system may make use of centralized or decentralized chilled water storage.

Energy efficiency can be achieved by selecting which between a centralized and decentralized system is more appropriate, and designing the chosen system according to the facility’s specific conditions.

Efficiency could be further improved by the proper regulation of temperature, air velocity, direction and humidity levels. Options include centralized controls on the equipment, individual controls within facility areas (in rooms, lecture halls, operating theatres, etc.), and remote controls via a network of sensors interconnected to a Building Management System (BMS) – see below.

Energy Star
Ratings

Energy Star ratings have developed in popularity over the last 5 years for the owners of facilities (especially in the commercial office building sector), to evaluate their level of Energy Efficiency, their “green” credentials, and the proof that they have embraced Sustainability by how they have either built or upgraded their buildings.

There are a number of Commercial Facility Energy Star Rating schemes available. Some have become “de facto” international standards (such as LEED, a US based rating scheme, which stands for Leadership in Energy Efficiency Development). LEED has various ratings which may be achieved, from Silver to Gold right up to Platinum. In Australia, the Green Building Council of Australia has a 6 Star Energy Rating Scheme where 1 Star is lowest and 6 Stars is highest.

There is also a scheme now available in the Philippines, developed by the Philippine Green Building council, called BERDE. This stands for Building Ecologically Responsive Design Excellence, and it is a 5 Star rating scheme, with 5 Stars being the highest

Research undertaken in a number of developed countries (including Australia and the US) has found that higher energy star rated buildings perform better on a number of metrics:

  • They command a premium rental compared to equivalent class (but lower Energy Star rated) of building.
  • They are able to secure tenants for longer lease and re-lease periods. This is particularly emphasized with government tenants, who are sometimes mandated to only lease or re-lease in buildings that have a high Energy Star rating (over 4.5) or have committed to improving their Energy Star rating to an agreed level within an acceptable defined period.
  • Their energy costs are lower than equivalent class (but lower Energy Star rated) of building.
  • The asset value of their building increases as a result of their reduced operating expenses, their high occupancy levels, and the premium rental they command.

TREES is able to undertake Green Energy Star ratings on behalf of its clients.

New Buildings:

These studies can be undertaken with buildings at a pre-project design level, a review of final design, prior to construction, a review once the building has been commissioned, a review one year after commissioning, and annual reviews to confirm the high Energy Star rating is maintained.

Existing Buildings:

TREES can also undertake Energy Star ratings on existing buildings, then undertake an Engineering Assessment to determine how to upgrade the building to achieve a certain improvement in its Energy Star rating.

As a provider of turnkey services, TREES is then able to design, install and commission the project to achieve the forecast higher Energy Star rating.

Smart Sub
Metering

The objective of energy management is to effectively perform a function using the least possible amount of energy. To achieve this, constant and accurate measurement of energy consumption at various critical points is essential. This is what an effective Metering System can bring to an establishment.

A Metering System makes use of meters and submeters to measure energy consumption in real-time. In addition to measuring resources like electricity, gas, diesel and water, meters can also measure waste water, compressed air, water and air temperature, humidity and others.

Utilizing smart technology, a comprehensive Metering System can record and display historic as well as real-time data, which may be accessed remotely via modem/internet connections. The system can store and send significant amounts of data, including information on the consumption pattern of individual units or areas being monitored.

This information may then be used to enhance understanding of how and where energy is being used, identify consumption issues, and come up with solutions to address these issues. For example, if a building’s ventilation system is over-consuming, slowing down the motor without affecting its overall performance could provide an instant solution. Automation related to BMS (see technology above) could be the more efficient solution, as energy levels are automatically adjusted based on real-time factors and conditions.

Energy
Monitoring

A Metering System is an essential component of Energy Performance Monitoring (EPM).

Energy Performance Monitoring is a comprehensive system that includes historic comparisons, benchmark-setting, measuring performance against benchmarks, and coming up with action steps based on information gathered from metering and monitoring. Information from measuring devices are presented in a graphical manner, which enables much faster analysis and decision making.

Different operations and establishments will have different energy and water needs. An effective EPM is designed around the unique needs of a business or building, with the end goal of utilizing energy, water and other resources in the most efficient way.

An EPM system may make use of an existing Metering System, or require upgrades on an existing system or the setting up of a new one. Energy performance indicators (EPIs) for individual equipment or sites, or for the entire facility, may also have to be developed.
In an EPM system, accuracy is paramount to ensure the effectiveness of any action plan. In addition to accurate data from meters, submeters, sensors, and other devices, other measurement tools, such as the EPIs, have to be exact as well for example using accurate benchmarking parameters.

On-Site
Cogeneration

Cogeneration means the production of 2 outputs from a single generation source.

Trigeneration means the production of 3 outputs from a single generation source.

These plants can also be known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) or Combined Cooling and Heating Power (CCHP) plants.

These plants may use a number of different fuels to generate electricity such as natural gas, biogas and diesel. They are typically smaller generation capacity (below 20 MW) and typically are located on-site at industrial or commercial end use facilities.

They are used to generate electricity, hot water, steam and chilled water and potentially other by-products at industrial facilities. The attraction of this technology is the utilization of heat which would normally be wasted. This translates into a high utilization of each unit of energy generated by the plant (up to 95%). If the cost of the fuel is low enough and the price of electricity sourced from the main, external grid is high enough, then the financial performance of the Cogeneration and/or Trigeneration plant can be very attractive to the end user.

Client can save electricity costs, they can use “free” waste heat to produce hot water, steam and/or chilled water, and the plant has an economic life of 15-20 years. This means a significant saving to the client over a substantial period.

Flow
Control

Different companies have different water system needs, but adequate water supply — whether for human consumption, industrial/commercial or agricultural use — is paramount. An effective Water Management System will help guarantee  constant and cost-efficient water supply, while remaining eco-friendly.

Some of the most effective water management systems involve water reuse/recycling, rainwater harvesting, and flow control.

Recycling can be done to various levels of purity (and cost), from non-potable quality for such uses as irrigation, wash down or manufacturing, to safe potable quality suitable for human drinking needs.

Rainwater harvesting is also a water management practice that has been gaining much support. Collected rainwater may be treated and filtered to various levels of purity, including potable quality. It is an ideal solution in places where ample rainfall is consistent, and there is a substantial need for external uses like irrigation and ground and garden maintenance.

Harvested rainwater can also provide an emergency source of water as has been used by certain hospitals.

Flow control includes the ability to adjust the intensity and/or length of time of the water flow. This can also be linked to required water temperature, and the amount of water needed over a 24-hour period. Adequate flow control will help avoid water wastage while minimizing the amount of energy needed to generate water at a desired temperature.

Various water management systems may be adopted individually or complementary to each other to achieve optimum water supply control.

Water
Recycling

Different companies have different water system needs, but adequate water supply — whether for human consumption, industrial/commercial or agricultural use — is paramount. An effective Water Management System will help guarantee  constant and cost-efficient water supply, while remaining eco-friendly.

Some of the most effective water management systems involve water reuse/recycling, rainwater harvesting, and flow control.

Recycling can be done to various levels of purity (and cost), from non-potable quality for such uses as irrigation, wash down or manufacturing, to safe potable quality suitable for human drinking needs.

Rainwater harvesting is also a water management practice that has been gaining much support. Collected rainwater may be treated and filtered to various levels of purity, including potable quality. It is an ideal solution in places where ample rainfall is consistent, and there is a substantial need for external uses like irrigation and ground and garden maintenance.

Harvested rainwater can also provide an emergency source of water as has been used by certain hospitals.

Flow control includes the ability to adjust the intensity and/or length of time of the water flow. This can also be linked to required water temperature, and the amount of water needed over a 24-hour period. Adequate flow control will help avoid water wastage while minimizing the amount of energy needed to generate water at a desired temperature.

Various water management systems may be adopted individually or complementary to each other to achieve optimum water supply control.

Waste Heat
Recovery

As far as green cooling solutions go, vapor absorption chillers (VACs) are top-of-the-line. A VAC uses a waste heat source to power the generation of chilled water, which is then used to air condition an area. The process involves the basic principles of evaporation and condensation to provide cooling, and is particularly efficient in large areas.

Waste heat could come from the exhaust of a gas turbine or reciprocating engine, the flue from dryers, boilers, kilns and others, as well as Cogeneration and Trigeneration plants (see technology below).

As the power source is waste heat and not electricity, there is practically zero fuel cost. It also utilizes non-CFC refrigerants, primarily water, resulting in low carbon emissions.

Hot Water
Systems

Hot water systems in facilities can be used for a variety of applications. Hot water can be used for space heating, domestic hot water (bathrooms, kitchens, refreshment areas), sterilization, laundries and pool heating (therapeutic and leisure). The systems can be fueled by electricity, natural gas and renewable energy (Solar). The systems can be centralized or distributed.

Lighting and
Controls

Lighting in commercial and industrial facilities is a large consumer of electricity, typically responsible for 20-30% of the total electricity consumption of a facility, depending on the hours of operation. With Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) facilities, the percentage can increase to nearly 40%, because these facilities operate 24/7.

As lighting technologies develop, they continue to improve their energy efficiency and extend their lamp life. As an example the latest 4th Generation Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting products are now able to produce the equivalent of a 36 Watt fluorescent lamp with an 18 Watt LED lamp. This lamp also has a rated lamp life of 50,000 hours, compared with the fluorescent lamps’ 25-30,000 hours.

These LED lamps are now widely available in mainstream applications such as office, hospital, hotel, university, retail and leisure facilities, car parks, industrial, street lighting, warehouse and security lighting requirements.

The LED lamps can be obtained for a wide variety of shapes such as long tubes for typical office/ceiling lighting environments, downlights, warehouse high bay lighting, street/roadside/tunnel lighting and industrial/security lighting.

Lighting controls can range from basic to sophisticated, highly sensitive controls. They can adjust the level of lighting from off to highest intensity, with multiple graduations in between. The controls can sense movement, occupation intensity, ambient light. There can be security links, so all lights (external and internal) can be triggered in an emergency. Lighting controls can also be linked to work area requirements such as high intensity for detailed laboratory analysis of materials, general office illumination at the desk site, and lower intensity in recreational/social settings. The Lighting controls can be controlled separately from the BMS (see above) or they can be fully integrated with the BMS.

Lighting controls can be installed separately from the luminaires, or they can be integrated within the luminaire (either at point of manufacture or as a retrofit).

Building
Automation
Controls

A Building Management System (BMS) uses computer-based technology to manage and monitor various equipment and services in a facility, including the HVAC, security, power, and lighting systems. A BMS may cover only certain individual functions or all of a facilities’ mechanical and electrical services.

The range of controls varies widely, from the most basic such as on/off functions, to the most sophisticated, involving sensors and devices that can automatically regulate specific functions like air flow, air temperature, humidity, and lighting.

For example, under a more sophisticated BMS, a room’s occupancy may be detected and used to adjust certain conditions. If the room has low occupancy, the system could automatically adjust the lighting, ventilation, and air conditioner settings to appropriate levels. The sensors may also detect inside/outside temperatures and adjust the HVAC settings as needed.

By identifying and utilizing the right controls, energy usage is better managed and optimized, resulting in lower utilities costs.

Air Conditioning
Ventilation

These products generate hot and/or chilled water, primarily used for space heating and cooling. They can be centralized chiller plant, or decentralized (such as split inverter systems, standalone tower units or wall/window mounted units. The central chiller plants may be water or air cooled. There may be centralized or de-centralised chilled water storage as an additional design element. Their purpose is to provide indoor air in facilities which can be regulated by temperature, velocity, direction and humidity levels. The HVAC system circulates the heated or chilled air throughout a facility via a ventilation system using Air Handling Units (AHU’s), Fan Coil Units (FCU’s) and appropriate ductwork. An HVAC system may be controlled and regulated by centralized controls on the equipment, individual controls within facility areas (in rooms, lecture halls, operating theatres), and remotely via a network of sensors interconnected to a BMS – see below.

Variable
Speed Drives

Also known as Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD’s). These devices are used in both industrial and commercial facilities, being widely applied to pumps, fans and compressors, from small single motors to large multi-drive machines. They operate by varying the frequency of the AC voltage supplied to the motor using solid state electronic devices. By varying the frequency, the VSD can adjust the speed of the pump, fan or compressor over a wide range or vary the speed precisely. This means that when the VSD reduces the speed of the device, this means reduced energy (electricity) use which means energy savings.

VSD’s can be controlled by Building Management systems and Industrial Process Control to vary the speed of devices based on actual demand, or pre-set parameters, based on operational history, so they can be part of an Optimisation Strategy to save energy and increase energy efficiency.

VSD’s also save money by reducing system maintenance because the pumps, fans and compressors are not working as hard, nor for as long as their previous operational profile before the fitting of VSD’s.

High Efficiency
Motors

Also known as Premium Efficiency Motors, these motors are designed to increase the energy efficiency of motors by 20-30%. They can take the efficiency rating from around 80% to above 95%. This improvement saves substantial electricity costs, enabling clients to achieve simple paybacks of below three to five years, depending on the operational profile, size and cost of the motor.

According to the US Department of Energy, motors are responsible for around 40% of the electricity used to drive pumps, fans, compressors, and other mechanical traction equipment.

HEM’s are suitable for retrofitting/upgrading of existing motors in commercial and industrial facilities such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels, universities, retail, leisure facilities as well as industrial sites such as food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, grain processing and cold storage facilities.

The motors are used for chilled Water and Hot Water compressors, air distribution, water distribution, heat rejection, refrigeration, and in all industrial processing plants.

Boiler
Replacements

Boilers are mainstream providers of hot water and steam, at various temperatures, flow and steam rates in both commercial and industrial facilities. In hospitals and hotels they can be providing Domestic Hot Water for space heating and personal use (bathrooms, kitchens), steam for sterilizers, hot water for therapeutic and leisure swimming pools, hot water and steam for commercial laundries etc. In industrial facilities, they have a wide application for various industrial processes, producing both hot water and steam.

There are many opportunities to increase the energy efficiency of boiler systems, including the replacement of old boilers with new, high efficiency boilers, the optimization of existing boilers by capturing additional waste heat and re-injecting it into the existing boilers, and improving the efficiency of the daily operation of the existing boilers by optimization using commercial building management systems (BMS) or industrial process control systems.

Solar PV
Systems and
Batteries

Solar PV systems can be a combination of roof mounted, ground mounted and potentially wall mounted. The system includes all the relevant components to generate electricity from the sun captured by the polycrystalline solar panels as Direct Current (DC) electricity and then converted to Alternating Current (AC) via inverters, to provide electricity directly to the end user or electricity network.

The cost of Solar PV systems has decreased dramatically over the last few years, so now Commercial solar PV systems for business are more affordable, with much shorter payback periods. This means the capacity of the installation can now increase, with projects in the 500 kW to 1MW range becoming more commonplace.

The Solar PV systems are also now being enhanced with new generation Lithium based battery storage systems, enabling Solar PV to be a more mainstream source of energy for both commercial and industrial facilities.

Chiller
Replacements

Comfortable indoor temperatures are essential to an efficient working environment, making HVAC integral to any plant, office or building. HVAC often makes up a large part of a business’s day-to-day costs.

An HVAC system may be centralized or decentralized.

A centralized system involves a central chiller plant that’s either water-cooled or air-cooled. A decentralized system makes use of split inverter, standalone tower or wall/window-mounted units. Either system may make use of centralized or decentralized chilled water storage.

Energy efficiency can be achieved by selecting which between a centralized and decentralized system is more appropriate, and designing the chosen system according to the facility’s specific conditions.

Efficiency could be further improved by the proper regulation of temperature, air velocity, direction and humidity levels. Options include centralized controls on the equipment, individual controls within facility areas (in rooms, lecture halls, operating theatres, etc.), and remote controls via a network of sensors interconnected to a Building Management System (BMS) – see below.

Energy Star
Ratings

Energy Star ratings have developed in popularity over the last 5 years for the owners of facilities (especially in the commercial office building sector), to evaluate their level of Energy Efficiency, their “green” credentials, and the proof that they have embraced Sustainability by how they have either built or upgraded their buildings.

There are a number of Commercial Facility Energy Star Rating schemes available. Some have become “de facto” international standards (such as LEED, a US based rating scheme, which stands for Leadership in Energy Efficiency Development). LEED has various ratings which may be achieved, from Silver to Gold right up to Platinum. In Australia, the Green Building Council of Australia has a 6 Star Energy Rating Scheme where 1 Star is lowest and 6 Stars is highest.

There is also a scheme now available in the Philippines, developed by the Philippine Green Building council, called BERDE. This stands for Building Ecologically Responsive Design Excellence, and it is a 5 Star rating scheme, with 5 Stars being the highest

Research undertaken in a number of developed countries (including Australia and the US) has found that higher energy star rated buildings perform better on a number of metrics:

  • They command a premium rental compared to equivalent class (but lower Energy Star rated) of building.
  • They are able to secure tenants for longer lease and re-lease periods. This is particularly emphasized with government tenants, who are sometimes mandated to only lease or re-lease in buildings that have a high Energy Star rating (over 4.5) or have committed to improving their Energy Star rating to an agreed level within an acceptable defined period.
  • Their energy costs are lower than equivalent class (but lower Energy Star rated) of building.
  • The asset value of their building increases as a result of their reduced operating expenses, their high occupancy levels, and the premium rental they command.

TREES is able to undertake Green Energy Star ratings on behalf of its clients.

New Buildings:

These studies can be undertaken with buildings at a pre-project design level, a review of final design, prior to construction, a review once the building has been commissioned, a review one year after commissioning, and annual reviews to confirm the high Energy Star rating is maintained.

Existing Buildings:

TREES can also undertake Energy Star ratings on existing buildings, then undertake an Engineering Assessment to determine how to upgrade the building to achieve a certain improvement in its Energy Star rating.

As a provider of turnkey services, TREES is then able to design, install and commission the project to achieve the forecast higher Energy Star rating.

Smart Sub
Metering

The objective of energy management is to effectively perform a function using the least possible amount of energy. To achieve this, constant and accurate measurement of energy consumption at various critical points is essential. This is what an effective Metering System can bring to an establishment.

A Metering System makes use of meters and submeters to measure energy consumption in real-time. In addition to measuring resources like electricity, gas, diesel and water, meters can also measure waste water, compressed air, water and air temperature, humidity and others.

Utilizing smart technology, a comprehensive Metering System can record and display historic as well as real-time data, which may be accessed remotely via modem/internet connections. The system can store and send significant amounts of data, including information on the consumption pattern of individual units or areas being monitored.

This information may then be used to enhance understanding of how and where energy is being used, identify consumption issues, and come up with solutions to address these issues. For example, if a building’s ventilation system is over-consuming, slowing down the motor without affecting its overall performance could provide an instant solution. Automation related to BMS (see technology above) could be the more efficient solution, as energy levels are automatically adjusted based on real-time factors and conditions.

Energy
Monitoring

A Metering System is an essential component of Energy Performance Monitoring (EPM).

Energy Performance Monitoring is a comprehensive system that includes historic comparisons, benchmark-setting, measuring performance against benchmarks, and coming up with action steps based on information gathered from metering and monitoring. Information from measuring devices are presented in a graphical manner, which enables much faster analysis and decision making.

Different operations and establishments will have different energy and water needs. An effective EPM is designed around the unique needs of a business or building, with the end goal of utilizing energy, water and other resources in the most efficient way.

An EPM system may make use of an existing Metering System, or require upgrades on an existing system or the setting up of a new one. Energy performance indicators (EPIs) for individual equipment or sites, or for the entire facility, may also have to be developed.
In an EPM system, accuracy is paramount to ensure the effectiveness of any action plan. In addition to accurate data from meters, submeters, sensors, and other devices, other measurement tools, such as the EPIs, have to be exact as well for example using accurate benchmarking parameters.

On-Site
Cogeneration

Cogeneration means the production of 2 outputs from a single generation source.

Trigeneration means the production of 3 outputs from a single generation source.

These plants can also be known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) or Combined Cooling and Heating Power (CCHP) plants.

These plants may use a number of different fuels to generate electricity such as natural gas, biogas and diesel. They are typically smaller generation capacity (below 20 MW) and typically are located on-site at industrial or commercial end use facilities.

They are used to generate electricity, hot water, steam and chilled water and potentially other by-products at industrial facilities. The attraction of this technology is the utilization of heat which would normally be wasted. This translates into a high utilization of each unit of energy generated by the plant (up to 95%). If the cost of the fuel is low enough and the price of electricity sourced from the main, external grid is high enough, then the financial performance of the Cogeneration and/or Trigeneration plant can be very attractive to the end user.

Client can save electricity costs, they can use “free” waste heat to produce hot water, steam and/or chilled water, and the plant has an economic life of 15-20 years. This means a significant saving to the client over a substantial period.

Flow
Control

Different companies have different water system needs, but adequate water supply — whether for human consumption, industrial/commercial or agricultural use — is paramount. An effective Water Management System will help guarantee  constant and cost-efficient water supply, while remaining eco-friendly.

Some of the most effective water management systems involve water reuse/recycling, rainwater harvesting, and flow control.

Recycling can be done to various levels of purity (and cost), from non-potable quality for such uses as irrigation, wash down or manufacturing, to safe potable quality suitable for human drinking needs.

Rainwater harvesting is also a water management practice that has been gaining much support. Collected rainwater may be treated and filtered to various levels of purity, including potable quality. It is an ideal solution in places where ample rainfall is consistent, and there is a substantial need for external uses like irrigation and ground and garden maintenance.

Harvested rainwater can also provide an emergency source of water as has been used by certain hospitals.

Flow control includes the ability to adjust the intensity and/or length of time of the water flow. This can also be linked to required water temperature, and the amount of water needed over a 24-hour period. Adequate flow control will help avoid water wastage while minimizing the amount of energy needed to generate water at a desired temperature.

Various water management systems may be adopted individually or complementary to each other to achieve optimum water supply control.

Water
Recycling

Different companies have different water system needs, but adequate water supply — whether for human consumption, industrial/commercial or agricultural use — is paramount. An effective Water Management System will help guarantee  constant and cost-efficient water supply, while remaining eco-friendly.

Some of the most effective water management systems involve water reuse/recycling, rainwater harvesting, and flow control.

Recycling can be done to various levels of purity (and cost), from non-potable quality for such uses as irrigation, wash down or manufacturing, to safe potable quality suitable for human drinking needs.

Rainwater harvesting is also a water management practice that has been gaining much support. Collected rainwater may be treated and filtered to various levels of purity, including potable quality. It is an ideal solution in places where ample rainfall is consistent, and there is a substantial need for external uses like irrigation and ground and garden maintenance.

Harvested rainwater can also provide an emergency source of water as has been used by certain hospitals.

Flow control includes the ability to adjust the intensity and/or length of time of the water flow. This can also be linked to required water temperature, and the amount of water needed over a 24-hour period. Adequate flow control will help avoid water wastage while minimizing the amount of energy needed to generate water at a desired temperature.

Various water management systems may be adopted individually or complementary to each other to achieve optimum water supply control.

Waste Heat
Recovery

As far as green cooling solutions go, vapor absorption chillers (VACs) are top-of-the-line. A VAC uses a waste heat source to power the generation of chilled water, which is then used to air condition an area. The process involves the basic principles of evaporation and condensation to provide cooling, and is particularly efficient in large areas.

Waste heat could come from the exhaust of a gas turbine or reciprocating engine, the flue from dryers, boilers, kilns and others, as well as Cogeneration and Trigeneration plants (see technology below).

As the power source is waste heat and not electricity, there is practically zero fuel cost. It also utilizes non-CFC refrigerants, primarily water, resulting in low carbon emissions.

Hot Water
Systems

Hot water systems in facilities can be used for a variety of applications. Hot water can be used for space heating, domestic hot water (bathrooms, kitchens, refreshment areas), sterilization, laundries and pool heating (therapeutic and leisure). The systems can be fueled by electricity, natural gas and renewable energy (Solar). The systems can be centralized or distributed.

Lighting and
Controls

Lighting in commercial and industrial facilities is a large consumer of electricity, typically responsible for 20-30% of the total electricity consumption of a facility, depending on the hours of operation. With Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) facilities, the percentage can increase to nearly 40%, because these facilities operate 24/7.

As lighting technologies develop, they continue to improve their energy efficiency and extend their lamp life. As an example the latest 4th Generation Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting products are now able to produce the equivalent of a 36 Watt fluorescent lamp with an 18 Watt LED lamp. This lamp also has a rated lamp life of 50,000 hours, compared with the fluorescent lamps’ 25-30,000 hours.

These LED lamps are now widely available in mainstream applications such as office, hospital, hotel, university, retail and leisure facilities, car parks, industrial, street lighting, warehouse and security lighting requirements.

The LED lamps can be obtained for a wide variety of shapes such as long tubes for typical office/ceiling lighting environments, downlights, warehouse high bay lighting, street/roadside/tunnel lighting and industrial/security lighting.

Lighting controls can range from basic to sophisticated, highly sensitive controls. They can adjust the level of lighting from off to highest intensity, with multiple graduations in between. The controls can sense movement, occupation intensity, ambient light. There can be security links, so all lights (external and internal) can be triggered in an emergency. Lighting controls can also be linked to work area requirements such as high intensity for detailed laboratory analysis of materials, general office illumination at the desk site, and lower intensity in recreational/social settings. The Lighting controls can be controlled separately from the BMS (see above) or they can be fully integrated with the BMS.

Lighting controls can be installed separately from the luminaires, or they can be integrated within the luminaire (either at point of manufacture or as a retrofit).

Building
Automation
Controls

A Building Management System (BMS) uses computer-based technology to manage and monitor various equipment and services in a facility, including the HVAC, security, power, and lighting systems. A BMS may cover only certain individual functions or all of a facilities’ mechanical and electrical services.

The range of controls varies widely, from the most basic such as on/off functions, to the most sophisticated, involving sensors and devices that can automatically regulate specific functions like air flow, air temperature, humidity, and lighting.

For example, under a more sophisticated BMS, a room’s occupancy may be detected and used to adjust certain conditions. If the room has low occupancy, the system could automatically adjust the lighting, ventilation, and air conditioner settings to appropriate levels. The sensors may also detect inside/outside temperatures and adjust the HVAC settings as needed.

By identifying and utilizing the right controls, energy usage is better managed and optimized, resulting in lower utilities costs.

Air Conditioning
Ventilation

These products generate hot and/or chilled water, primarily used for space heating and cooling. They can be centralized chiller plant, or decentralized (such as split inverter systems, standalone tower units or wall/window mounted units. The central chiller plants may be water or air cooled. There may be centralized or de-centralised chilled water storage as an additional design element. Their purpose is to provide indoor air in facilities which can be regulated by temperature, velocity, direction and humidity levels. The HVAC system circulates the heated or chilled air throughout a facility via a ventilation system using Air Handling Units (AHU’s), Fan Coil Units (FCU’s) and appropriate ductwork. An HVAC system may be controlled and regulated by centralized controls on the equipment, individual controls within facility areas (in rooms, lecture halls, operating theatres), and remotely via a network of sensors interconnected to a BMS – see below.

Variable
Speed Drives

Also known as Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD’s). These devices are used in both industrial and commercial facilities, being widely applied to pumps, fans and compressors, from small single motors to large multi-drive machines. They operate by varying the frequency of the AC voltage supplied to the motor using solid state electronic devices. By varying the frequency, the VSD can adjust the speed of the pump, fan or compressor over a wide range or vary the speed precisely. This means that when the VSD reduces the speed of the device, this means reduced energy (electricity) use which means energy savings.

VSD’s can be controlled by Building Management systems and Industrial Process Control to vary the speed of devices based on actual demand, or pre-set parameters, based on operational history, so they can be part of an Optimisation Strategy to save energy and increase energy efficiency.

VSD’s also save money by reducing system maintenance because the pumps, fans and compressors are not working as hard, nor for as long as their previous operational profile before the fitting of VSD’s.